October 19, 2019

Простые и составные (сложные) операторы

Обратил внимание на то, что в моем блоге не хватает немного философских идей, давайте исправим это недоразумение.

According to Johnson (2007), "Statements that contain no operator we call simple statements; all others we call compound statements" (p. 121). The operators are:

if ... then
if and only if

A compound statement can be distilled down into simple statements. A simple statement is the fundamental unit - it cannot be further broken down.

Bennett (2004) explains the history of compound propositions. "While Aristotle dealt strictly with simple propositions and the ways that terms or classes were assembled together to form these propositions, the Stoics allowed simple propositions themselves to be connected together to form compound propositions" (p. 119).

Gensler (2002) advises readers to take this process one step at a time. "Focus on logical terms, like 'if-then' and 'not,' and translate part by part. ... Don't let complex wording intimidate you. Instead, divide and conquer" (p. 37). Even the most confusing sentence can be whittled down into meaningful simple statements.

So a few examples of compound statements would be:

(not) - Cabernet sauvignon is NOT a grape allowed in Burgundy wine.
(and) - Cabernet sauvignon AND cabernet franc are grapes allowed in Bordeaux wine.
(or) - Methode champenoise OR carbonation can be used to create a bubbly wine.
(if ... then) - IF you use a corkscrew on a Champagne bottle cork, THEN the bottle could explode.
(if and only if) - A port can be labelled a vintage port IF AND ONLY IF all the grapes in the bottle were harvested in the year stated.


  • Bennett, Deborah J. (2004). Logic Made Easy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Gensler, Harry. (2002). Introduction to Logic. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Johnson, Robert M. (2007). A Logic Book. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cenage Learning.

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